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arak Valley in Assam, consisting three districts, Cachar, Karimganj and Hailakandi, a geographical area of about 6922 sq., k.m., (according to the census of 2001) is situated between Longitude 92°15" and 93°15" East and Latitude 24°8" and 25°8" North. The valley constitutes 8.9 per cent of the geographical area of of Assam; contains 11.22 percent of the population (2001 census). The North Cachar Hills district and the state of Meghalaya in its north, Mizoram in the south, Manipur in the east, and the state of Tripura and the Sylhet district of Bangladesh in the west of the valley The valley has an undulating topography characterized by hills, hillocks, wide plains, and low-lying water bodies, locally known as beels, some of which, however, dry up in the winter, termed as howers. Most of the hills have a north-south spread interspersed by the strips of plains. The land is alluvial, and is naturally fertile.

The principal river, Barak origins from Angami Naga Hills in Manipur, and travels in curved route cutting through the heart of Cachar district, reaches Haritikar in Kathigora revenue circle to be divided into two branches, Surma and Kushira to flow in Bangladesh in separate streams. Kushira, however, flows in Karimganj and forms the natural border of India and Bangladesh. Jiri, Chri, Madhura, Jatinga, Dhalesweri, Ghagra, Katakhal, Longai, Shingla, Sonai are the major rivers in Barak Valley.

Barail, Bhuban, Panchgram, Chatacherra, Mohonpur, Saraspur are the major hills with numerous hillocks in their vicinities.

The climate of Barak valley is sub-tropical, warm and humid. The average rainfall is 3180 mm with average rainy days of 146 per annum (data furnished by the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Karimganj). The rainfall is caused by the South-west monsoon, which begins in the early June to continue up to October. The valley, however experience pre-monsoon rainfall in the month of March and April

This plain track of Barak valley is a geographical extension of Gangetic Bengal. The valley is predominantly inhabited by the Indo-Aryan population, and the demography is formed in early times by integrating the Indo-Mongoloid, Austric and other non-Aryan ethnic groups in a long historical process.

The Geo-political map of the valley has been subjected to changes at the whims of the colonial British. Prior to its annexation to the British territory (1832, 14 August), however, Cachar was an independent kingdom ruled by the royal family of the Dimasa (from 1745). Having the kingdom annexed the colonists had placed Cachar under Dacca Division of Bengal Presidency (1836). Initially Cachar (the core area of the present Barak Valley) emerged as a ‘province’ to be degraded to the status of a district under Bengal presidency. When Assam was constituted into a separate state in 1874 Cachar was transferred to it (along with Sylhet), although geographically, historically and culturally it represented a distinct region. At the dawn of independence the Sylhet portion was transferred to East Pakistan, and Cachar formed a part of the state of Assam separated form the mainland by the Barail Hill range. With the formation of two more districts truncating Cachar, the area in the south of Assam is collectively termed as Barak valley.

1)     Essays:~

(a)বরাকে জনবিন্যাসের মূলসূত্র - ভক্তিমাধব চট্টোপাধ্যায়
(The Fundamental Principle of Community Demographics of Barak Valley - Bhakti Madhab Chattopadhyaya)

2) Short Biographies

3)     Photographs:~







(g)Barak- not a river only

(h)Map of Pre-Independence Surma-Barak


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